07) Evolution of Urban Transport Systems and Future Tendencies – A Literature Review
Transportation is an important sector that has significant economic, social and environmental impacts. Public transportation plays an important role on traffic operation, regarding benefits for the environmental and human health. Thus, this sector has been receiving a considerable attention by the science and industry in the last decades. However, innovations and implementation costs are considered expensive. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is an overview based on the development of the bicycles and automobiles plus Bus Rapid Transit systems, Light Rail Transit and Rapid Rail Transit (Metro). In this way, innovations in transportation, such as the sharing of cars, as well as autonomous vehicles were analyzed. In order to try to reduce harmful emissions affecting health, global warming and life quality, concern for urban mobility has become an interesting issue for large cities. Furthermore, the flow of vehicles, mainly in large cities, has enhanced the demand for mass transit, as less impact as possible to the environment and for a more efficient public transport. Therefore, the construction of train lines and Bus Rapid Transit systems has shown recently a considerable increase, mainly in cities and towns in development. Thus, the results indicate that these modes of public transport are fast, efficient and with low emission of pollutants. What reduces traffic on the streets and travel times, increases real estate speculation near the stations and, conveniently, the quality of services. The bibliographic review shows that bicycles still are the most economic transportation mode, which also favors the human and environmental health. Automobiles, which are considered the villain, have received many investments from different companies. This modal is becoming more efficient and technological, in terms of autonomous driving, car sharing and electric propulsion.
KEYWORDS: Rapid Rail Transit; Bus Rapid Transit; Light Rail Transit; Bicycles; Automobiles; Sustainable Transportation.